Corona Virus Covid 19

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Can universal masking be a crude ‘vaccine’?

R. Prasad


SEPTEMBER 12, 2020 19:46 IST

UPDATED: SEPTEMBER 12, 2020 20:42 IST


Known principle: It has been known that that lower inoculums of other viruses, including flu, lead to milder illnesses.


Known principle: It has been known that that lower inoculums of other viruses, including flu, lead to milder illnesses. | Photo Credit: Suprabhat Dutta


Masks decrease risk of infection and if infected decrease the amount of viral particles, leading to only asymptomatic infection or mild disease
The idea of allowing people to get naturally infected with novel coronavirus in order to achieve herd immunity even before safe and effective vaccines become available has now been dismissed. Now, a few researchers are putting forth a hypothesis that supports universal mask wearing. According to this hypothesis, universal mask wearing decreases chances of infection, and, if infected, decreases the amount of virus particles (inoculum) a mask-wearer is exposed to thus causing only asymptomatic infection or mild COVID-19 disease.
Dr. Monica Gandhi and Dr. Eric Goosby from the University of California, San Francisco, and Dr. Chris Beyrer from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, argue that exposure to the virus “without the unacceptable consequences of severe illness” through universal masking can lead to greater spread of immunity in the community thus slowing down the spread of the virus eventually, even as the world awaits an effective vaccine.

Depending on the type and fit of masks common people use, the amount of virus particles a person is exposed to may be reduced even if infected. According to Dr. Beyrer, cloth masks can screen out between 65% and 85% of viral particles.

Effects of exposure
While much attention has been on the role of masks in reducing or preventing the spread of virus from an infected person to others, the possibility of a healthy mask-wearer getting exposed to only smaller amounts of virus and the possible effects of such exposure has not received equal attention, the researchers write in an article published in the Journal of General Internal Medicine. Dr. Gandhi and Dr. George W. Rutherford from the University of California, San Francisco advance the same idea in a recently published perspective piece in The New England Journal of Medicine.

A growing body of virological, epidemiological, and ecological evidence suggests that universal masking can reduce the severity of disease among people who do become infected, they write. “We have known for more than 50 years that lower inoculums of other viruses, including flu, lead to milder illnesses. Since this is a basic principle in virology, it likely holds true for COVID-19,” Dr. Beyrer told Johns Hopkins.


Learning from studies
In a study of healthy participants exposed to wild-type influenza A virus, more severe symptoms were seen in those exposed to higher amounts of the virus.
A study involving hamsters helped understand the connection between novel coronavirus dose and disease severity. In the study, a surgical mask partition helped reduce the risk of infection in healthy hamsters that were separated from infected ones. And those healthy animals that did get infected had only milder manifestations of infection.
The best epidemiological evidence comes from Diamond Princess cruise ship and a ship in Argentina. While only 18% of passengers in the Diamond Princess cruise ship were asymptomatic, universal masking in the Argentina ship resulted in 81% (128 of 217 passengers and staff) of the infected remaining asymptomatic.
In a seafood processing plant in Oregon, U.S. universal masking could not completely prevent infection, but among the 124 who were infected, 95% were asymptomatic. Similarly, in a Tyson chicken plant in Arkansas, masking resulted in 95% asymptomatic rate of infection. Ecological evidence comes from many Southeast Asian countries that had adopted universal masking from the beginning of the pandemic, reporting fewer cases and deaths.
“If this theory bears out, population-wide masking, might contribute to increasing the proportion of SARS-CoV-2 infections that are asymptomatic,” they write in The New England Journal of Medicine. Since universal masking decreases viral inoculum leading to increase in asymptomatic infection that induces strong T cell immunity for some duration, “could masking be a crude vaccine until we get to a real vaccine?” Dr. Gandhi asks in a tweet.
While a few studies have shown that immune responses are seen in asymptomatically infected individuals, the differences in the duration of protection between asymptomatic and symptomatic infection are not known yet.


Not to misinterpret
It is important that people do not misinterpret the hypothesis to think that one can intentionally inoculate oneself with the virus by wearing a mask. Since studies have not been conducted with the sole purpose of studying the effects of universal masking on COVID-19 severity through reduced virus inoculum, people who wear masks should not become complacent nor should people think that masks are useless as they cannot completely prevent infection in some individuals.
“I am not suggesting pox parties. Just saying masking could be good on multiple levels — decrease transmission, decrease disease severity, help drive up immunity,” Dr. Gandhi tweeted.


Can universal masking be a crude ‘vaccine’?
 
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Trump Again Scorns Science on Masks and Vaccines

President Trump urged Republicans to “go for the much higher numbers” in stalled negotiations over another economic recovery package, undercutting his party’s push for a bare-bones plan.

Published Sept. 16, 2020Updated Sept. 18, 2020, 8:08 a.m. ET

‘They Are Our Best Defense’: Redfield Renews Call to Wear Masks

Dr. Robert R. Redfield, the director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, told senators that if all Americans wore masks, the coronavirus could be controlled in six to 12 weeks.


Today, and even after we have a vaccine, C.D.C. encourages all Americans to embrace the powerful tools that we have right now — to wear a mask, particularly when they’re in public, maintain social distancing, routine vigilant handwashing. Be smart about crowds, and stay home when you’re sick. We’re going to continue to give Congress and the nation the best public health advice. We’re not going to let political influence try to modulate that. Face mask — these face masks are the most important powerful public health tool we have. And I will continue to appeal for all Americans, all individuals in our country, to embrace these face coverings. I’ve said it, if we did it for six, eight, 10, 12 weeks, we’d bring this pandemic under control. These actually, we have clear scientific evidence they work, and they are our best defense. I might even go so far as to say that this face mask is more guaranteed to protect me against Covid than when I take the Covid vaccine because the immunogenicity may be 70 percent, and if I don’t get an immune response, the vaccine is not going to protect me. This face mask will.


Dr. Robert R. Redfield, the director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, told senators that if all Americans wore masks, the coronavirus could be controlled in six to 12 weeks.CreditCredit...Anna Moneymaker for The New York Times


Trump contradicts the C.D.C. chief’s testimony on masks and vaccines.
President Trump on Wednesday rejected the professional scientific conclusions of his own government about the prospects for a widely available coronavirus vaccine and the effectiveness of masks in curbing the spread of the virus as the death toll in the United States from the disease neared 200,000.
In a remarkable display even for him, Mr. Trump publicly slapped down Dr. Robert R. Redfield, the director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as the president promised that a vaccine could be available in weeks and go “immediately” to the general public while diminishing the usefulness of wearing masks despite evidence to the contrary.

The president’s comments put him at odds with the C.D.C., the world’s premier public health agency, over the course of a pandemic that he keeps insisting is “rounding the corner” to an end. Mr. Trump lashed out just hours after Dr. Redfield told a Senate committee that a vaccine would not be widely available until the middle of next year.
“I think he made a mistake when he said that,” Mr. Trump told reporters. “It’s just incorrect information.” A vaccine would go “to the general public immediately,” the president insisted, and “under no circumstance will it be as late as the doctor said.”


Mr. Trump also said Dr. Redfield “made a mistake” when he told senators that masks were so vital in fighting the disease caused by the coronavirus, Covid-19, that they might be even more important than a vaccine. “The mask is not as important as the vaccine,” Mr. Trump said.
The president has repeatedly claimed that a vaccine could be available before Election Day on Nov. 3, a timeline that most health experts say is unrealistic, prompting concerns that the Food and Drug Administration might give emergency authorization to a vaccine before it has been fully vetted for safety and effectiveness. Nine pharmaceutical companies have pledged to “stand with science” and to not push through any product that didn’t stand up to scientific scrutiny.
Earlier on Wednesday, Joseph R. Biden Jr., the Democratic presidential nominee, accused the president of trying to rush out a vaccine for electoral gain.

“Let me be clear: I trust vaccines,” Mr. Biden said. “I trust scientists. But I don’t trust Donald Trump, and at this moment, the American people can’t either.”



Trump Again Scorns Science on Masks and Vaccines




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Covid-19 vaccine tracker, Sept 17: Masks offer better protection than a vaccine would, says US health expert

Coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine latest update, September 17: CDC Director Robert Redfield said the pandemic could be brought quickly under control if face masks were adopted universally.


By: Explained Desk | Pune | Updated: September 18, 2020 12:21:12 pm

coronavirus, coronavirus vaccine, corona vaccine, covid 19 vaccine india, astrazeneca vaccine, moderna vaccine update, novavax vaccine, oxford vaccine news, covid 19 vaccine latest news


A mural in Noida. (Express Photo: Gajendra Yadav)



Coronavirus vaccine tracker: Describing it as the “most powerful public health tool” against the novel coronavirus, Robert Redfield, director of the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States, has said face masks offered much better protection against the infection than a vaccines would.
The CDC is the US equivalent of the Indian Council of Medical Research. Redfield was responding to questions from US lawmakers at a Senate sub-committee hearing.
“We have clear scientific evidence they work, and they are our best defence. I might even go so far as to say that this face mask is more guaranteed to protect me against Covid-19 than when I take a vaccine,” Redfield said.

While a coronavirus vaccine is likely to become available by early next year, if not towards the end of this year itself, no one knows as of now how effective these vaccines are likely to be. Prominent scientists and vaccine developers have suggested that the early vaccines might not be the most effective ones, and that we would be lucky if they provide protection to at least 75 per cent of those inoculated. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has said it would approve a coronavirus vaccine if was found to be safe and was at least 50 per cent effective.

Redfield urged people to continue wearing face masks even after a vaccine had become available, and said the pandemic could be brought quickly under control if face masks were adopted universally.
During the same hearing, Redfield also said a vaccine in the United States would not become widely available until the “late second quarter, or third quarter” of next year.
“If you are asking me when is it going to be generally available to the American public so that we can begin to take advantage of vaccine to get back to our regular life, I think we are probably looking at third, late second quarter, third quarter 2021,” he said.

Trump repeats: Vaccine in three to four weeks
US President Donald Trump kept alive the speculation about a coronavirus vaccine becoming available before the November 3 Presidential elections, saying the United States could be “getting it” within four weeks.
“The previous administration would have taken perhaps years to have a vaccine, because of the FDA and all the approvals. We are within weeks of getting it. You know, could be three weeks, four weeks,” he said at a townhall event, according to a Bloomberg news report.
Three vaccine candidates are currently undergoing last-stage clinical trials in the United States. Of these, the trials of the one being developed by Oxford University and AstraZeneca has been put on hold because an incident in which a trial participant in England had developed severe illnesses. The trials in England have since resumed after an independent expert committee had analysed the incident, but, in US, the pause on the trial remains.
The developer of another of these vaccines, Pfizer, has said it expected to know by October end how effective its vaccine was likely to be, and if this data was satisfactory it would immediately apply to the US FDA for an emergency authorisation.


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Vaccine distribution in US to start within 24 hours after authorisation, would be administered free of cost
The United States government was getting ready to start distributing a coronavirus vaccine within 24 hours of the vaccine getting an approval or emergency authorisation from the drug regulator. A report in The New York Times quoted officials of the Department of Health and Human Services as saying they were expecting that a vaccine would be available sometime in the last three months of this year, at least for high-priority groups like healthcare workers.
The same newspaper report also said the idea was to provide the vaccine free of cost to all Americans, though a decision on that was still pending. The United States government has already paid billions of dollars to several vaccine developers to pre-book guaranteed supplies of their candidates when they are ready and get approved. The money was meant to accelerate the development of the vaccine and also as advance payment for the hundreds of millions of doses of assured supplies.

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There are 180 vaccine candidates in pre-clinical or clinical trials. (Reuters Photo)


Coronavirus vaccine must be a global public good, should be equally accessible to all, says WHO
The World Health Organisation has urged all countries to treat a coronavirus vaccine, when it becomes available, as “global public good” that must be equally accessible by all.
The WHO has released a “values framework” which is intended to guide governments and policymakers on allocation and prioritisation of a coronavirus vaccine so that it is first available to people who need it the most irrespective of the countries or regions they reside in.
“While there has been unprecedented progress in developing a vaccine against Covid-19, supplies of the first vaccine (or vaccines) to be authorised will be limited in the short to medium term. This Values Framework is intended to offer guidance globally on the allocation of Covid-19 vaccines between countries, and to offer guidance nationally on the prioritisation of groups for vaccination within countries, particularly when supply is limited,” the WHO said.
WHO director general Tedro Adhanom Ghebreyesus asked countries not to indulge in what has come to be known as ‘vaccine nationalism’ to refer to the tendencies of countries to hoard vaccines when they become available.
“The first priority must be to vaccinate some people in all countries, rather than all the people in some countries. Vaccine nationalism will prolong the pandemic, not shorten it,” he said.


Hunt for coronavirus (Covid-19) vaccine: The story so far
  • 180 vaccine candidates in pre-clinical or clinical trials
  • 35 of them in clinical trials
  • Eight in final stages, phase-III of human trials
  • At least eight candidate vaccines being developed in India. Two of these have entered phase -II trials after completing phase-I.
  • The ones most talked about
* AstraZeneca/Oxford University
* Moderna
* Pfizer/BioNTech
* Johnson & Johnson
* Sanofi/GlaxoSmithKline
* Novavax
* Russian vaccine, developed by Gamaleya Insttiute in Moscow
(As on September 15; source: WHO Coronavirus vaccine landscape of September 9, 2020)


Covid-19 vaccine tracker, Sept 17: Masks offer better protection than a vaccine would, says US health expert
 
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Schools in Himachal from Classes 9-12 to reopen from Monday
Educational institutions in the state were closed in March after the outbreak of the deadly virus
https://www.bcmtouring.com/forums/javascript%3Aup()
  • Posted: Sep 18, 2020 06:46 PM (IST)
  • Updated : 2 days ago



Schools in Himachal from Classes 9-12 to reopen from Monday

Photo for representation only.

Shimla, September 18
The Himachal Pradesh government has decided to reopen schools from Classes 9 to 12 from Monday, almost six months after remaining shut due to the coronavirus pandemic.

The decision in this regard was taken in a Cabinet meeting chaired by Chief Minister Jai Ram Thakur on Friday evening, an official spokesperson said.
Educational institutions in the state were closed in March after the outbreak of the deadly virus.
The Cabinet gave its nod to open educational institutions outside the containment zones in the state from September 21 as per the standard operating procedure (SOP) of the Union Ministry of Home Affairs and the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, the spokesperson said.
These schools will be opened with 50 per cent teaching and non-teaching staff in attendance for students from Class 9 to Class 12, provided the students are willing to take guidance from the teachers, he said.
For this, a written consent of the parents or guardians of students is mandatory, the spokesperson added. PTI


Schools in Himachal from Classes 9-12 to reopen from Monday
 

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PM Modi To Inaugurate Atal Rohtang Tunnel On October 3

The Rohtang Tunnel was the dream project of former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee who wanted to lay down an alternate all weather connectivity between Manali and Leh.

Ashwani Sharma
20 September 2020




Prime Minister Narendra Modi is all set to inaugurate the newly built Atal Tunnel connecting Manali with Leh on October 3. The construction of the Atal Tunnel, which is the world's longest highway tunnel above 10,000 feet, saw a completion during the ongoing coronavirus pandemic.
Himachal Pradesh Chief Minister Jai Ram Thakur confirmed the date of inauguration to Outlook.


He said, “As per information received from the PMO, PM Narendra Modi will attend the inauguration ceremony of the Rohtang Tunnel, named after former PM Atal Bihari Vajpayee, on October 3”.
Thakur also informed that the state government has started preparing for the Prime Minister’s visit, and also for a public meeting that he is going to address. All necessary social distancing norms will be observed during the event. Yet we will keep other options open if the Prime Minister decides to perform the ceremony through video conferencing.


“State’s Chief Secretary Anil Khachi is working out all the modalities and the district administrations at Kullu and Lahaul-Spiti have been alerted. The Border Roads Organisation (BRO) has given its go-ahead and is giving the last minute touches to the tunnel”, he informed.
The Rohtang Tunnel was the dream project of former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee who wanted to lay down an alternate all weather connectivity between Manali and Leh. The tunnel’s construction began in 2010 though Vajpayee had given approval in June 2000.
The Rohtang Tunnel is strategically important in view of the growing tension in the Ladakh region which borders China. India has already reinforced the deployments after the conflict escalated and both Indian and Chinese troops indulged in a physical combat in the Galwan valley.
The tunnel, which will cut short the distance between Mnali and Leh by 46 km, is built at a cost of Rs 3500 Crore by the BRO using some of the advanced engineering technologies. The tunnel will have all emergency systems, traffic mobility and an emergency tunnel right below the main traffic tunnel for use during emergencies.
The tribal district of Lahaul-Spiti which remains cut off for six months due to heavy snowfall at Rohtang Pass, is expected to benefit from the tunnel’s construction.


“Our economy is going to see a big boost and tourism will flourish in the areas creating new job avenues and livelihood means for the people of the area”, says Dr Ram Lal Markanda, local MLA and minister for tribal affairs.
Brigadier K P Purushothaman who is the Chief Engineer said, “This is the world's longest tunnel having been built-up at a height of 10,171 feet. The people of Lahaul-Spiti will be immediate beneficiaries. They will get an all-weather connectivity throughout the year as they had spent years of isolation during the winters due to snowfall and closure of the Rohtang Pass.
“The tunnel is all set for its inauguration by honourable Prime Minister as all installations of electro-mechanic fittings, Intelligent Traffic Control Systems, ventilation, road surface works, and lighting etc. has been done along with the construction of two gates at the south (Kullu) and North portals (Lahaul Spiti),and washing of the tunnel”.




 

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Himachal Pradesh
Shimla
is having good time
with Tourists
Economy can move little ahead like this only :

1601054093759.png




Earlier only 500-600 vehicles were coming before
compulsory Corona Negative Report to enter HP.

now 16K cars entered HP during weeekend.
 

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Across the Globe, Students Head Back to School



Image
Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.Credit...Vyacheslav Oseledko/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images
Students and teachers returned to classrooms around the world, hopeful, excited — and wary.
By The New York Times
Sept. 1, 2020
Leer en español

From Wuhan to London to Tel Aviv and many places in between, students are returning to classrooms this week after months of staying home in an attempt to slow the spread of the coronavirus.
Opening schools is a step toward normalcy, in a changed world where the virus has killed more than 850,000 people and infected 25.4 million. Many countries see the return as imperative to jump-starting economies devastated by the pandemic.
Some are taking the risk despite rising cases, and schools are requiring precautions like wearing masks, washing hands, checking temperatures and keeping children in social bubbles.
In the Chinese city of Wuhan, the original center of the pandemic, state-run news media said that more than 2,840 primary and secondary schools, serving nearly 1.4 million students, reopened on Tuesday. Students had their temperatures taken and were instructed in hand-washing techniques.

The school opening was a striking turnabout from the early days in January and February, when Wuhan became synonymous with the virus. The deadly infection spread rapidly and mysteriously through the city, and officials imposed a 76-day lockdown.
Now, China is taking an ambitious approach toward reopening schools, vowing to resume in-person classes this fall for almost all students. A notable exception is the region of Xinjiang in the west, where several cities remain under lockdown more than a month after an outbreak there.




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Wuhan, China.Credit...CHINATOPIX, via Associated Press



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Bron, France.Credit...Jeff Pachoud/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images



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London.Credit...Dominic Lipinski/Press Association, via Associated Press
In Britain, classrooms and schoolyards rang with the clamor of students on Tuesday morning as hundreds of thousands of children returned to classrooms in the government’s boldest bid yet to reopen society.

Prime Minister Boris Johnson has declared the reopening of schools to be a “moral duty,” and made it a centerpiece of his strategy to recover from the pandemic, which has inflicted a higher toll on Britain — 41,500 deaths — than on any other European country.


There is no nationwide rule about wearing face coverings at school. The government has left those decisions up to individual schools and has said children in primary school do not need to do so.
In Belgium, children 5 and older also headed back to school Tuesday. Only those in high-risk groups were allowed to stay home. But children returning from vacation in areas with high infection rates are not allowed back in school for 14 days. Masks are required for older students.



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Brussels.Credit...Francisco Seco/Associated Press



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Wloszczowa, Poland.Credit...Piotr Polak/EPA, via Shutterstock




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Jagnjilo, Serbia.Credit...Vladimir Zivojinovic/Getty Images
After six months off, other than a brief return in June, more than 12 million students in France were also back in classrooms, though the country is seeing climbing numbers of virus cases. Students over 11 and all teachers are required to wear masks and to try to maintain social distance. Where there are outbreaks, classrooms will close again, said the minister of education, Jean-Michel Blanquer.
In Israel, more than two million students returned Tuesday despite a relatively high infection rate and concerns that academic institutions could facilitate the spread. Experts have said that Israel’s quick reopening of schools last May — after Covid-19 cases had subsided — played a significant role in the virus’s comeback.
The Israeli authorities instituted new regulations meant to prevent outbreaks, and decided to keep schools closed in 23 cities and towns with especially high infection rates. As of Tuesday afternoon, there were 20,699 active virus cases in Israel, according to the Health Ministry.


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Tel Aviv.Credit...Jack Guez/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images



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Barcelona, Spain.Credit...Emilio Morenatti/Associated Press



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Amman, Jordan.

Amman, Jordan.Credit...Khalil Mazraawi/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

In Russia, which reached one million confirmed cases on Tuesday, schools opened with few precautions. Teachers and children were not required to wear masks.
Spanish students are also returning to school this month, despite a surge in cases that has made Spain the worst current hot spot in Europe.

School Reopenings ›

Back to School
Updated Sept. 25, 2020
The latest on how schools are reopening amid the pandemic.

Children older than 5 are required to wear masks. But because schools are managed by each of Spain’s 17 regional administrations, rather than the central government, there are discrepancies in not only how but also when students are returning to the classroom. And some regions have been changing their school plans with only days to go before the scheduled reopening.
The global reopenings come as the United States has opted to carry on with remote learning for the most part.
New York City is the only major school system in the country planning on offering some in-person education this fall, though it pushed back its start date on Tuesday. Many U.S. colleges and universities that have reopened have seen outbreaks on campus, forcing some to close again.
But in other parts of the world, the openings have been hailed as a powerful sign that life is slowly getting back to normal.
“School is open, and I’m very excited and happy,” a sixth-grader named Li Xinnuo told a radio broadcaster in Wuhan. “I can see my classmates, whom I haven’t seen for a long time.”




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Moscow.Credit...Evgenia Novozhenina/Reuters



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Kyiv, Ukraine.Credit...Gleb Garanich/Reuters



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Bron, France.Credit...Jeff Pachoud/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images
Reporting was contributed by: Javier C. Hernandez, Antonella Francini, Andrew E. Kramer, Mark Landler, Raphael Minder, Monika Pronczuk and Adam Rasgon.






Across the Globe, Students Head Back to School

A version of this article appears in print on Sept. 2, 2020, Section A, Page 8 of the New York edition with the headline:
For Students Around the World, a First Day of School Like No Other. Order Reprints | Today’s Paper |
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Does the govt have Rs 80,000 crore for Covid-19 vaccines?’: SII’s Adar Poonawalla asks

A phase III trial of the vaccine candidate developed by Oxford University and British pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca is underway in India as part of a production and testing deal with Pune-based Serum Institute of India (SII).






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Home / India News / ‘Does the govt have Rs 80,000 crore for Covid-19 vaccines?’: SII’s Adar Poonawalla asks

‘Does the govt have Rs 80,000 crore for Covid-19 vaccines?’: SII’s Adar Poonawalla asks

A phase III trial of the vaccine candidate developed by Oxford University and British pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca is underway in India as part of a production and testing deal with Pune-based Serum Institute of India (SII).

[https://m]Adar Poonawalla, the chief executive of the Serum Institute of India, is seen in this file photo in Pune. (HT Photo )Updated: Sep 26, 2020 18:04 IST

By hindustantimes.com | Edited by Meenakshi Ray , Hindustan Times, New Delhi

Adar Poonawalla, the chief executive of the Serum Institute of India which is conducting trials of Covid-19 vaccine candidates, on Saturday raised questions regarding the country’s plan to produce and distribute shots against the coronavirus disease.

A phase III trial of the vaccine candidate developed by Oxford University and British pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca is underway in India as part of a production and testing deal with Pune-based Serum Institute of India (SII).

“Quick question: will the Government of India have 80,000 crores available over the next one year? Because that is what the Ministry of Health needs to buy and distribute the vaccine to everyone in India. This is the next concerning challenge we need to tackle,” Poonawalla tweeted.

Quick question; will the government of India have 80,000 crores available, over the next one year? Because that's what @MoHFW_INDIA needs, to buy and distribute the vaccine to everyone in India. This is the next concerning challenge we need to tackle. @PMOIndia

— Adar Poonawalla (@adarpoonawalla) September 26, 2020

“I ask this question, because we need to plan and guide, vaccine manufacturers both in India and overseas to service the needs of our country in terms of procurement and distribution,” he said.

I ask this question, because we need to plan and guide, vaccine manufacturers both in India and overseas to service the needs of our country in terms of procurement and distribution.

— Adar Poonawalla (@adarpoonawalla) September 26, 2020

Serum Institute, the world’s largest vaccine maker by the number of doses produced, is working on several vaccine candidates against the coronavirus disease - including potentially mass-producing the one from AstraZeneca-Oxford University that has garnered global headlines - as well as developing its own.

US biotech firm Codagenix Inc said on Tuesday that Serum Institute of India has started manufacturing its potential Covid-19 vaccine and it expects to begin the early-stage human trial of the vaccine by the end of 2020 in the UK. Serum Institute will develop Codagenix’s CDX-005, which is delivered intranasally rather than via injection.

Three more India-made Covid-19 vaccines are set to enter human trials, according to an official of the Center’s department of biotechnology that is supporting the development of several experimental coronavirus vaccines in the country.

The new vaccine candidates are from Gennova Biopharmaceuticals, Biological E and Bharat Biotech, which has developed one of the two already in clinical trials. The fifth Indian vaccine candidate to clear preclinical phases is by Zydus Cadila.

More than 150 potential vaccines are being developed and tested globally, with 38 in human trials, and candidates from Moderna Inc, Pfizer Inc and AstraZeneca Plc are already in late-stage trials.

 
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Coronavirus: Facts vs Myths | T Cells - The Immune Warriors
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•Jul 30, 2020


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COVID-19 News: With several reports claiming Covid antibodies wane after a few weeks of infection, here's a special discussion on reports suggesting T-Cells are the unsung immune warriors and are being able to protect people from fresh coronavirus infections.


2.
Faheem Younus, MD
@FaheemYounus
Tweeting from the COVID frontlines. Chief of Infectious Diseases, UM UCH. Providing pandemic tips and more; ask your doctor for personal health questions
Maryland, USAlinkedin.com/in/faheemyounusJoined October 2011
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166.6K Followers

https://twitter.com/faheemyounus?lang=en



3.
Now something practical and honest from:
The Head of the Infectious Disease Clinic,
University of Maryland,
for GB USA:

1. We may have to live with C19 for months or years. Let's not deny it or panic. Let's not make our lives useless. Let's learn to live with this fact.

2. You can't destroy C19 viruses that have penetrated cell walls, drinking gallons of hot water - you'll just go to the bathroom more often.

3. Washing hands and maintaining a two-metre physical distance is the best method for your protection.

4. If you don't have a C19 patient at home, there's no need to disinfect the surfaces at your house.

5. Packaged cargo, gas pumps, shopping carts and ATMs do not cause infection. Wash your hands, live your life as usual.

6. C19 is not a food infection. It is associated with drops of infection like the ‘flu. There is no demonstrated risk that C19 is transmitted by ordering food.

7. You can lose your sense of smell with a lot of allergies and viral infections. This is only a non-specific symptom of C19.

8. Once at home, you don't need to change your clothes urgently and go shower!
Purity is a virtue, paranoia is not!

9. The C19 virus doesn't hang in the air. This is a respiratory droplet infection that requires close contact.

10. The air is clean, you can walk through the gardens (just keeping your physical protection distance), through parks.

11. It is sufficient to use normal soap against C19, not antibacterial soap.
This is a virus, not a bacteria.

12. You don't have to worry about your food orders. But you can heat it all up in the microwave, if you wish.

13. The chances of bringing C19 home with your shoes is like being struck by lightning twice in a day. I've been working against viruses for 20 years - drop infections don't spread like that!

14. You can't be protected from the virus by taking vinegar, sugarcane juice and ginger!
These are for immunity not a cure.

15. Wearing a mask for long periods interferes with your breathing and oxygen levels.
Wear it only in crowds.

16. Wearing gloves is also a bad idea; the virus can accumulate into the glove and be easily transmitted if you touch your face.
Better just to wash your hands regularly.

17. Immunity is greatly weakened by always staying in a sterile environment. Even if you eat immunity boosting foods, please go out of your house regularly to any park/beach.
Immunity is increased by EXPOSURE TO PATHOGENS,
not by sitting at home and consuming fried/spicy/sugary food and aerated drinks.

Original article

We will live with Covid19 for months. Let's not deny it or panic: Dr. Faheem Younus – Daily The Azb
 
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