Corona Virus Covid 19

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Jammu and Kashmir extends COVID-19 lockdown restrictions till January 31
IANS
DEC 31, 2020, 09:47 IST

Jammu and Kashmir extends COVID-19 lockdown restrictions till January 31


TOI
Jammu, The Jammu and Kashmir government on Thursday extended restrictions under the Covid protocol up to January 31, 2021.

Keeping in view the apprehensions expressed after the arrival of a Covid-19 positive patient in Jammu city, who recently travelled into the country from abroad, authorities have decided to continue the ongoing restrictions under the Covid protocol up to January 31.

According to the new guidelines, all schools, colleges and other educational institutions will remain closed up to the end of January.



Online classes will, however, be held for the students of all such educational institutions.

All the 20 districts of J&K have been categorised as 'Orange' and everybody has been advised to strictly follow the precautions detailed for such areas.

District level officials have been directed to ensure that no large gatherings are allowed in connection with the new year eve celebrations on Thursday.


"People are advised to welcome the new year while keeping their personal safety in view", an official of the provincial administration said.

Meanwhile, authorities have decided to undertake genome sequencing of the Covid positive patient who arrived in Jammu city from abroad a few days ago.

Experts fear the patient might be infected with the new variant of the virus.



All the family members of the patient have been shifted to official quarantine and reports said many of them have tested positive.

Jammu and Kashmir extends COVID-19 lockdown restrictions till January 31
 

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Delhi imposes two-night curfew on New Year’s eve — no celebrations allowed at public places
BI INDIA BUREAU
DEC 31, 2020, 09:54 IST

Delhi imposes two-night curfew on New Year’s eve — no celebrations allowed at public places


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The Delhi Disaster Management Authority has imposed a two-night curfew from 11 pm to 6 am in the Union Territory starting today (December 31) until January 2.

The authorities have banned gathering more than five persons at any public place. And no new year celebration events or gatherings are allowed at public places during this period — from 11 pm to 6 am on both days.

However, there will be no restriction on interstate movement of people and goods during night curfew in Delhi, the chief secretary said in the order.

The Union Health Ministry said on Wednesday the new strain of the coronavirus, which was found in the UK, has so far been detected in eight samples at the National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) in Delhi.

Official sources told PTI that among the eight people was the woman who left Delhi and travelled to Andhra Pradesh last week by train. The remaining seven are in quarantine at the Lok Nayak Jai Prakash Narayan Hospital (LNJP) in the national capital.


This came after the central government had asked the state authorities to impose a series of restrictions and tone down the celebrations after at least 22 cases of new mutant coronavirus strain were reported in the country.

Delhi recorded 677 fresh COVID-19 cases and 21 fatalities on Wednesday, bringing the infection tally in the city to over 6.24 lakh and the death toll to 10,523, authorities said.

(with inputs from PTI)

Delhi imposes two-night curfew on New Year’s eve — no celebrations allowed at public places
 

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UK-India flights resume; chaos at Delhi airport as govt modifies quarantine rule
Source: PTI - Edited By: Utkarsh Mishra
Last updated on: January 08, 2021 21:12 IST


Chaotic scenes were witnessed at the Delhi airport on Friday as many passengers arriving from the United Kingdom vociferously complained against the national capital government's belated decision to make seven-day institutional quarantine compulsory for them irrespective of their COVID-19 test results.



Passenger flights resumed from the UK to India in limited numbers from Friday onwards after remaining suspended for 16 days due to the emergence of a new coronavirus variant in that country.
Air India's AI112 flight from London landed at the Delhi airport at around 10.30 am.
It was the only UK flight to land in Delhi on Friday and it had 256 passengers in it, said Gauri Agarwal, founder of the Genestrings Diagnostic Centre, which is handling coronavirus testing of all passengers at the Delhi airport.

"This is ridiculous. You cannot tell people the rules have changed after they land. Some notice must be given! Chaos at Delhi Airport with this flight, families with small children, pregnant woman howling," Vistara's former Chief Strategy and Commercial Officer Sanjiv Kapoor said on Twitter.
Delhi Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal announced on Friday afternoon that travellers coming from the UK to the national capital will have to undergo a seven-day institutional quarantine and a seven-day home quarantine even if they test negative for COVID-19 on arrival.
Air India, however, claimed on Twitter on Friday evening that it had informed the flight's passengers about the new advisory of the Delhi government before the plane took off from the Heathrow airport last night.
"Around 20 passengers opted to cancel their flight on being informed by Air India's London team of this advisory. The announcement was repeated during the flight as well," the carrier added.
A passenger of the flight, named Harpreet Takkar, tagged Civil Aviation Minister Hardeep Singh Puri on Twitter and said, "Just came from London AI112, it's absolutely maniac at Delhi Airport. Asking us to go for institutional quarantine even with a Negative PCR test. Didn't mention this on your SOP (standard operating procedure)."
Another passenger, Mohit Wadhwa, tagged Kejriwal on Twitter and said, "I am one of the passenger of flight AI112 from London with my 2 months old son. You locked everyone of us."
Sources said there were heated arguments between the passengers and security personnel who were present at the airport.
Air India said it had mobilised all available resources to expedite RT-PCR tests for passengers of the flight and extended "every possible support to facilitate them".
One Vistara flight with 291 passengers will come from London to Delhi on Saturday and two flights -- one of British Airways and another of Air India -- with a total of 481 passengers will land at the Delhi airport on Sunday, Gauri Agarwal stated.
Aviation Minister Puri had announced earlier this month that only 30 flights per week will operate between India and the UK between January 8 and January 23. Indian and UK carriers will each be operating 15 flights per week during the period.
Earlier this month, the Union health ministry stated that a passenger coming from the UK can board a flight to India only when he has a negative test report from a sample taken 72 hours prior to the journey.

Moreover, as per the rules, the passenger also has to take the RT-PCR test on arrival at the entry airport in India.
India had suspended all passenger flights between the UK and India from December 23 to January 7 as a new variant of coronavirus emerged in the UK.
Over 60 passenger flights per week were flying between India and the UK in December before the suspension.


UK-India flights resume; chaos at Delhi airport as govt modifies quarantine rule
 

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Is 'localised' herd immunity behind dip in India's Covid count?
By Shakoor Rather
January 05, 2021 11:59 IST


The absolute number of people infected with COVID-19 in India may never be known but much of the scientific community agrees the downward trajectory of the disease is real and can likely be attributed to 'localised' herd immunity and a younger population.




IMAGE: Students stand in a queue at Women's college as it reopens for student following the COVID-19 outbreak, in Thiruvananthapuram on Monday. Photograph: ANI Photo


As scientists attempt to understand India's sliding COVID count, the country on Tuesday recorded 16,375 new COVID-19 cases, more than six times lower than the highest daily spike of 97,894 on September 16 and the lowest in six months.
While there is a glimmer of hope and India's COVID-19 numbers are on a definite decline for a combination of reasons, a vaccination programme continues to be important, particularly given the presence of a mutant, more transmissible strain, several experts said while cautioning against infection upticks ahead.
"It's not the absolute numbers, but the trajectory that is important," said Shahid Jameel, director, Trivedi School of Biosciences, Ashoka University, looking at India's COVID graph.
Noting that it is impossible and impractical to have true numbers during a pandemic, or even after that, unless everyone is tested, the virologist said COVID-19 cases in the country have gone down steadily since the peak in mid-September.
Reflecting the national trend, Delhi's graph has also been on a downward slide with 384 fresh COVID-19 cases recorded on Monday, the lowest in over seven months, raising hopes that herd immunity may have set in.
Herd immunity is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that sets in when a sufficient percentage of a population has become immune to an infection.

"Nothing has changed drastically in testing or behaviour since mid-September. So relatively speaking, it's a downward trajectory," Jameel told PTI.
The country's average, he said, hides many localised spikes and that would continue.
While the actual numbers may well be underestimated, the trend of lower numbers appears to be real and the rate of spread of the infection is likely to have reduced, said immunologist Satyajit Rath.
"A possible explanation for this may be that crowded urban localities and neighbourhoods where spread was very rapid earlier might be largely saturated, a form of hyperlocal 'herd immunity'," Rath, from New Delhi's National Institute of Immunology (NII), told PTI.
The lack of more travel and the distancing measures -- however poorly implemented -- may be keeping rates of spread somewhat lower in other less crowded neighbourhoods, he said.
Given the large number of infections in the first wave, it is certainly conceivable that some population immunity has set in and it is difficult for the virus to transmit as easily as it had in the first round, said epidemiologist and economist Ramanan Laxminarayan.
For that reason, it is doubtful India will have a second wave as big as the first one, he explained.
"India has been protected by its relatively young population -- 65 per cent of the country is under the age of 35 and infections in those age groups have likely slowed down overall transmission," Laxminarayan, founder and director of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy in Washington, told PTI.
Jameel added that while it is unclear what per cent infection or exposure is needed for herd immunity for COVID-19, most epidemiologists believe it would be 60 per cent or above.
"If that be the case, we may be closer to it in some but not all locations," Jameel said.
He noted that it is hard to say if the first wave is ending and if there will be a second wave.
"That depends on how many people have been infected. Considering that we went through two important periods without any significant upturn -- Dussehra to Diwali festive season and Bihar elections -- I think that there would be enough infected people and we will not see a second wave," said the virologist.
Referring to the second Indian Council of Medical Research survey which showed an average 6.6 per cent positivity across 70 districts three months ago, Jameel said it translates to 90 to 100 million infected people.
"Other surveys, e.g. urban centres, data from diagnostic company Thyrocare etc. put the number much higher -- 300 to 400 million," he said.
Positivity is the percentage of all coronavirus tests performed that are actually positive.
Outbreak modelling for India, said Jameel, suggests about 30 per cent overall infection, with 50 per cent in large and densely populated cities.
"What we are seeing is a complex mixture of high exposure in densely populated areas (cities) where the outbreak also moves faster, and low exposure in villages and rural districts where the outbreak may still be expanding, but doing so slowly," said Jameel, adding this will create a situation where the return to baseline will be prolonged.
Advising caution, Laxminarayan said there certainly seems to be a natural decline in the numbers of infections overall across most states, but that has been seen before in many other countries where there is now a rise in cases.
Rath agreed with Laxminaryanan, saying the virus spread is not in the form of a uniform 'wave' but the result of very many variable local 'waves'.
"It is quite likely the spread of infection will 'plateau', so to say, and will be sustained at a relatively lower level," he said.
Discussing a vaccine, Laxminarayan said everyone should get a shot, regardless of whether or not people have had a COVID infection.
"Immunity through direct exposure can be variable and not as reliable as immunity acquired through vaccination,” he said.
"Infection upticks are quite possible, so vaccinations are going to be very useful. And testing for pre-existing immunity before vaccination is not easy or cheap to implement," Rath added.
The vaccination will in all likelihood be done without any consideration of excluding previously exposed people, he said.
Jameel agreed.
"You can always test before giving a vaccine, but that would double cost and logistics. It's easier to vaccinate everyone at risk, who is willing to be vaccinated," he added.
With a more contagious variant now in India and detected so far in 33 countries, it is not known yet how the transmission will play out, the scientists said. Now that vaccines are becoming available, they should be deployed.
The experts also debunked the 'myth' that the Indian population is genetically advantaged in tackling this virus better.
Similar mortality rates, they said, are seen across all of South and Southeast Asia.
"Once we account for differences in age structure of population, there is not much difference in case fatality rates across countries, if measured correctly," Laxminarayan said.
Rath concurred with Laxminarayan, saying there is no strong clear evidence that the illness is less severe in India compared to elsewhere.

"I see no reason so far to invoke speculation about 'better immunity' or any genetic resistance in India. I have seen no evidence for either of those possibilities," he added.
The road ahead is still tricky.

Now that the vaccines are rolling out and will cover large parts of the world over the next six-12 months, one other thing to watch out for are vaccine-escape mutants, said Jameel.
"These would be viral variants that can escape vaccine generated immunity. This would only be possible by means of dense genomic sequencing, especially those who get infected even after getting vaccines," he added.



Is 'localised' herd immunity behind dip in India's Covid count?
 

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Milestones of Medicine | Disease

The 432-year-old manual on social distancing



(Image credit: Bildagentur-online/Alamy)
The Cholera in Spain, Fires for disinfecting the Streets of Granada by William Heysham Overend (Credit: Alamy)

By Zaria Gorvett8th January 2021

In this spookily prescient booklet, people are advised to keep six feet apart, avoid shaking hands and only send one person per household out to do the shopping.
I
It was the dead of night in mid-November 1582. A sailor stepped onto the dock at the port of Alghero, Sardinia, and took in the view of the city for the last time.
The unfortunate mariner is thought to have arrived from Marseille, 447km (278 miles) across the Mediterranean Sea. The plague had been raging there for a year – and it seems that he had brought it with him. He was already delirious, and suffering from the characteristic swellings that marked out the disease, known as buboes, in his groin area.
And yet, somehow the sailor managed to get past the plague guardians, or Morbers, whose job it was to stop those who had any symptoms. He made it into the city. Within days, he was dead and an outbreak had begun.
At this point, many of the people of Alghero were already doomed. Based on official records from the time, one 18th-Century historian estimated that the epidemic led to 6,000 deaths, leaving only 150 people alive. In reality, it's thought that the epidemic killed 60% of the city's population. (The exaggeration may have been an attempt by the government of the time to avoid tax.) Mass graves sprung up, some of which remain to this day – long trenches filled with the bones of up to 30 people at a time.
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It could have been worse, however. The surrounding districts were largely spared – unusually, the contagion remained in Alghero and vanished within eight months. It's thought this was all down to one man and his prescient conception of social distancing.
"It is perhaps a bit surprising to find this knowledgeable doctor in this rather parochial town," says Ole Benedictow, emeritus professor of history at the University of Oslo, who co-authored a paper on the subject. "You would expect for measures to be introduced more strictly in the big commercial towns, such as Pisa and Florence. But this doctor, he was in the front of his time. It's quite impressive."

Live chickens and urine
The most notorious plague episode in history was of course, The Black Death, which swept across Europe and Asia in 1346, killing an estimated 50 million people worldwide.
In Florence, the Italian poet Francesco Petrarca didn't think future generations would be able to grasp the scale of the devastation. He wrote: "O happy posterity, who will not experience such abysmal woe and will look upon our testimony as a fable." The remains of the plague's victims are regularly unearthed as part of tunnelling projects today, such as Crossrail in London. Records suggest that there are 50,000 bodies hidden under Farringdon alone.

The medieval city of Alghero is now a popular holiday destination, but it was the epicentre of a devastating plague outbreak in 1582 (Credit: Milosz Galezowski/EyeEm/Getty Images)

The medieval city of Alghero is now a popular holiday destination, but it was the epicentre of a devastating plague outbreak in 1582 (Credit: Milosz Galezowski/EyeEm/Getty Images)


But though the plague was never quite so catastrophic ever again, it remained a regular visitor in the coming centuries. It was reportedly present in Paris for one out of every three years until 1670, while in 1563 it's thought to have killed 24% of London's population.
This was a time before modern science, when the current understanding was that diseases were caused by "bad air" and vinegar was a cutting-edge antiseptic. Treatments for the plague ranged from the revolting, such as bathing in one's own urine, to the bizarre – one popular method was to attempt to draw the "poison" out of buboes by rubbing them with the rump of a live chicken.

Plague knowledge
As Benedictow and his co-authors explain, Alghero itself was not well-set-up for an epidemic. The city was burdened with poorly organised sanitary systems, a handful of badly-trained medics and a "backwards" medical culture. It had its work cut out.
Enter Quinto Tiberio Angelerio, a 50-something doctor – Protomedicus – from the upper classes. He had trained abroad, because there were no universities at the time in Sardinia. Luckily for the residents of Alghero, he was fresh from Sicily, which had endured a plague epidemic of its own in 1575.
Years later, he published a booklet, Ectypa Pestilentis Status Algheriae Sardiniae, detailing the 57 rules he had imposed upon the city
Alghero's patient zero arrived with buboes and, later, two women died with distinctive bruises on their bodies – another feature of the disease. Angelerio knew immediately what was happening. His first instinct was to ask for permission to quarantine the patients, but he was thwarted again and again – first by indecisive magistrates, then by a senate which rejected his report and put his concerns down to apocalyptic visions.
Angelerio became desperate. "He had the courage or the guts to turn to the viceroy," says Benedictow. With their agreement, he set up a triple sanitary cordon around the city walls, to prevent any trading with people outside.
Initially, the measures were extremely unpopular, and the public wanted to lynch him. But as more people died, they came round – and he was fully entrusted with the task of containing the outbreak. Years later, he published a booklet, Ectypa Pestilentis Status Algheriae Sardiniae, detailing the 57 rules he had imposed upon the city. Here's what he did.

Lockdowns
First, citizens were advised not to leave their houses, or move from one to another. Along these lines, Angelerio also forbade all meetings, dances and entertainments – and stipulated that only one person per household should leave to do the shopping, a rule that should be familiar to many enduring pandemic restrictions today.
Lockdowns were not unique to Alghero. "In Florence, for example, they imposed a total quarantine of the city in the spring of 1631," says John Henderson, a professor of Italian Renaissance history at Birkbeck, University of London. And just as today, rule-breaking was common.
"Over the year from the summer of 1630 to the summer of 1631, I found something like about 550 different cases that people were prosecuted for, for various infringements of the public health regulations," says Henderson. For most of that time, the city wasn't in full lockdown, but people were expected to self-isolate for 40 days if a member of their household was suspected of having the plague, and taken to hospital. This is where the word "quarantine" comes from – "quaranta giorni" means "40 days" in Italian.

The plague spread most rapidly in cities, where it was transmitted via contact with fleas, infected tissues or droplets in the air (Credit: Pictorial Press/Alamy)

The plague spread most rapidly in cities, where it was transmitted via contact with fleas, infected tissues or droplets in the air (Credit: Pictorial Press/Alamy)

"Obviously people got impatient," says Henderson. In the days before smartphones, streaming services, or even affordable books, people innovated ways to get around the total boredom of being confined to the house. "And so the court cases provide an extraordinarily lively account of the type of reactions that people had when they were locked up," he says.
Sometimes people were just unlucky – in one example, a woman rushed out of the front door after her chicken, which had made a bid for freedom onto the street. "As she runs back having caught it, a member of the Health Board comes along and arrests her for breaking the plague regulations"," says Henderson. She was taken to prison, but soon released by a sympathetic judge who explained that her offence was very minor.
In another, a woman whose son lived in the apartment beneath sent a basket down to him, in which he placed a pair of socks that need repairing. Then she hauled it back up. "Then a Health Board officer comes along, having seen what she was doing, and takes her off to prison," says Henderson.
But other people are more culpable. "Some people climbed along the roofs on contiguous terraced houses, and met friends to play the guitar and drink together, again breaking the plague regulations against people mixing together from different households," he says.

Physical distancing
Next up was the six-foot-rule, in which Angelerio instructed that – as translated by Benedictow's team – "People allowed to go out must bear with them a cane measuring six feet long. It is mandatory that people keep this distance from one another."
It turns out the 16th-Century policy may have been on the right side of science
Here Angelerio really marks himself out as an expert social distancer – none of the experts I spoke to had heard of this happening elsewhere. And yet, at the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic, many countries around the world adopted an uncannily similar policy, recommending that people remain two metres (6.6ft) apart where possible.
In many places, including the UK, France, Singapore, South Korea and Germany, the minimum distance has since been reduced to one or one and a half metres. But it turns out the 16th-Century policy may have been on the right side of science: one study estimated that the risk of transmitting Covid-19 at one metre could be between two and 10 times higher than the risk at two metres.
And Angelerio went further. He also specified that a large rail, or parabonda, should be added to the counters at shops in which foods are sold, to encourage people to keep their distance – and recommended that, during mass, people should be careful when shaking hands.
Many countries now require people to keep two metres apart at all times – roughly the same as that recommended in 16th-Century Sardinia (Credit: Jamie Lawton/Getty Images)

Many countries now require people to keep two metres apart at all times – roughly the same as that recommended in 16th-Century Sardinia (Credit: Jamie Lawton/Getty Images)

"I think he is more goal-oriented, with respect to the anti-epidemic measures that he wishes to introduce [than other doctors of his era]," says Benedictow. "I think it's mainly a question of degree and being early in his understanding of the required measures."
Washing your shopping
The Renaissance is popularly remembered as a golden age of classical philosophy, literature and especially art, when Michelangelo, Donatello, Raphael and Leonardo (da Vinci) – the Italian artists, not the ninja turtles – transformed their field with their genius. But it also ushered in great leaps forward in our scientific understanding.
This was when the physicist Nicholas Copernicus discovered that the Earth revolves around the Sun, rather than the other way around, and da Vinci drew up plans for making parachutes, helicopters, armoured vehicles, and an early robot. Then around 1500, leading thinkers built on the idea that diseases were caused by "bad air", to incorporate the possibility that people could become sick from touching objects that had been contaminated by this miasma.
One of the things that they thought was the most risky was textiles – Alex Bamji
"I see a connection between the development of the Renaissance and the ability of people in the 16th Century to understand more about how disease was spread," says Benedictow. "Angelerio understood that it was spread by contact and connection." One example is his stipulation that the owners of houses must disinfect, whitewash, ventilate and "water" them. He explained that any objects that aren't particularly valuable should be burned, while expensive furniture can be washed, exposed to the wind, or disinfected in an oven instead.
At the time, it was also common to disinfect goods as they arrived – especially those from ships. "One of the things that they thought was the most risky were textiles," says Alex Bamji, a social and cultural historian of early modern Europe from the University of Leeds. "But all sorts of things get disinfected, including letters," she says. Sometimes this leaves behind traces that can still be seen today. "If smoke and fire were used to disinfect them, you can still find the odd scorch mark here and there."

Health passports
One popular way to prevent the plague from turning up was to carefully check the health status of anyone who wanted to enter a city. Though the system failed at Alghero, where the 1582 outbreak's patient zero slipped past the guards stationed at the port, it was common elsewhere in Europe at the time.
In some cases, the authorities issued physical documents which enabled the bearer to pass through the gates despite any restrictions, either because they had been certified as plague-free or happened to know the right people.
"So, if you're a traveller, and you're going on business from one city to another – either your city has the plague or you're travelling to a city with the plague – you will need a health passport," says Philip Slavin, an associate professor of history at the University of Stirling.
Archaeologists found traces of 660-year-old bacteria in the skeletons of plague victims unearthed by the Crossrail project in London (Credit: Amer Ghazzal/Alamy)

Archaeologists found traces of 660-year-old bacteria in the skeletons of plague victims unearthed by the Crossrail project in London (Credit: Amer Ghazzal/Alamy)

When the Covid-19 pandemic began, the concept of "health passports" was resurrected. Recently several international airports – including London, New York, Hong Kong and Singapore – have been trialling "CommonPass", a digital document that can display a user's test results and vaccination records. The idea is to easily confirm their infection status to make international travel safer and more efficient.
Intriguingly, though the Alghero epidemic occurred centuries before the scientific concept of immunity emerged, Angelerio also assigned certain tasks to those who had already acquired and survived the plague. He decreed that grave-diggers should be hired from among this group – a high-risk job because they were expected to transport confessional booths to the bedsides of dying patients, and, of course, deal with the bodies of the deceased.
Quarantine
Italy was an early pioneer of isolating people suspected of having the plague – and on a truly massive scale. The first plague hospital, or lazaretto, was set up in Venice in 1423 – and soon they had separate facilities for active patients versus those who were recovering or who had come into contact with someone who was infected. By 1576, the city had up to 8,000 people staying at the former, plus around 10,000 at the latter.
In Angelerio's account of the lazarettos in Alghero, they are remarkably well-ordered
Eventually lazarettos became part of the standard model for dealing with the disease, and examples sprung up all over Italy, including Sardinia. They were part-hospital, part-prison – the quarantine facilities were usually mandatory, and in some circumstances patients were taken directly there by a city's plague guardians.
"They're not viewed positively – people at the time often described them as being 'like hell'," says Bamji, though she cautions that this may be more of a reflection of the stigma that surrounded them, than what they were really like.
"Huge amounts of money was spent on them – that's one thing to say," says Bamji. "And there's evidence that the food was pretty good." She explains that around half the people who stayed at lazarettos died, but of course the other half went home – and this is a comparable fatality rate to that seen in the rest of the population.
In Angelerio's account of the lazarettos in Alghero, they are remarkably well-ordered. The plague guardians were expected to keep track of everything brought into and out of the institutions, such as beds, furniture, and food. The poorest members of society were not expected to pay for their treatment. Sick patients were sometimes carried there from their homes, while orphaned babies who didn't have a wet nurse were bottle-fed with the milk of "well-fed goats", which were allowed to roam freely within its walls.

Dead cats
For all the similarities between the measures taken against outbreaks in the 16th Century and the kind we're familiar with today, there are some crucial differences.
In Renaissance Sardinia, superstition and religion were still key elements of Angelerio's epidemiological plans – he told the public that the plague was a divine punishment, and warned them to be on their best moral behaviour – and some of his instructions weren't just ineffective, they were baffling.

The Lazzaretto Nuovo was built on an island next to Venice in 1468, as a place to quarantine incoming ships and cargo (Credit: Alamy) (Credit: AlFA Visuals/Alamy)

The Lazzaretto Nuovo was built on an island next to Venice in 1468, as a place to quarantine incoming ships and cargo (Credit: Alamy) (Credit: AlFA Visuals/Alamy)
One example is the instruction that "turkeys and cats must be killed and thrown in the sea". This was a surprisingly common reaction to an epidemic – the author Daniel Defoe reported that, during the 1665 plague in London, the mayor ordered the slaughter of 40,000 dogs and 200,000 cats – and special dog-killers were appointed for the task.
However, this mass-execution of the city's predators may have had the opposite effect to the one intended – since rats are known carriers of the plague. (Rats were also persecuted directly in some cities, but not mentioned in Angelerio's account.)
Fast-forward to 2020 and, though there is hard evidence that cats and dogs can become infected with Covid-19, they remain as beloved as ever – many pet charities have reported record numbers of adoptions in recent months, with a branch of the RSPCA in Australia reporting 20,000 applications since the start of the pandemic.

The outbreak lasted for eight months, and then the city didn't see another plague epidemic for 60 years
In Benedictow's view, comparisons between the plague and Covid-19 should be viewed with some scepticism. "Plague epidemics were much worse and had an almost inconceivable mortality rate," he says. "It was usual that 60% and even 70% of a town or district population lost their lives."
So what happened to the residents of Anghero? The outbreak lasted for eight months, and then the city didn't see another plague epidemic for 60 years – but when it did, the first thing they did was turn to Angelerio's manual. The Protomedicus during the 1652 outbreak followed his instructions to the letter, introducing quarantine, isolation, the disinfection of goods and houses, and establishing sanitary cordons around the city.
The ill-fated sailor who arrived at Alghero nearly four-and-a-half centuries ago may have ignited an epidemic, but he also led to something else: a comprehensive guide to hygiene and social distancing, way ahead of its time.


The 432-year-old manual on social distancing
 
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