Me : Are there tigers in the forest?
Aane : These days they are very few..
Me : Where they all went ?
Aane : Before so many years there is a big fiery tiger and a wild cow..Tiger used to attack the cow every time...Tiger loved to jump on the cow and used to bite its neck and scratched all over the skin...One day cow got an idea ..rolled well in the mud and dried himself in sun.. The mud made a thick layer on its body..and waited for the tiger to arrive..when tiger attacked the cow it could not scratch the skin anymore..and in return cow threw the tiger with its strong horns...and wounded badly the tiger..From that day the tiger had been missing from that region..
Arunachal Pradesh is an ethnic state inhabited by colourful tribal people of diverse culture and lifestyle. All of them have their own unique culture and traditions. It is most important to note that the inhabitants of this I tribal state have the spirit of democracy inherent in their traditional laws.
In Arunachal Pradesh tribes constitutes 64% of the population and 36% of the population are immigrants, being ethinic tribes from adjacent states.There are 110 major tribes and subtribes inhabiting the area. Most of these communities are ethnically similar, having been derived from an original common stock but their geographical isolation from each other has brought amongst them certain distinctive characteristics in language, dress and customs. They have a heritage of a diverse and rich culture, language and beliefs.
Deep sense of beauty the people possess is seen through the delightful expression in their songs, dances and crafts. The major tribes of Arunachal Pradesh are Adi, Nyishi (including Bangru & Puroik), Apatani, Bugun, Galo, Hrusso, Koro, Meyor, Monpa, Tagin, Mishmi (including Idu, Taman & Kamman), Sajolang, Sartang, Tai Khamti (including Khamyang), Tangshang (including Muklom, Lonchang, Tutsa, Tikhak, Hawoi, Longri, Mungrey, Mushaung, Lungphi, Joglai, Ngaimong, Ponthai, Khalak, Lunghai, Halley, Chellim, Shechu, Shaingwal, Rera, Shaingtee, Oohe, Moital, Hatseng, Gajee, Gaja, Kochong, Lowchang, Laki, Gallon, Chamchang, Ringkhu, Shohra, Bowngtai, Rongrang etc. of Changlang district and Nocte, Wanchoo and Tutsa of Tirap district), Yobin, Singpho, Sherdukpen, Khamba, Memba.
Introducing some of the major Tribes
The Adis have two main divisions, (the Bogum and Bomis) and under each there are a number of sub-tribes. The Minyongs, Karkos, Shimongs, Bomdo, Janbos, Paggis, Pailibos, Bogum, Padams, Milangs and so on from one group ; while the Gallong and seven other groups constitute another group of Adis. The Adis by nature are democratic and organised village council called Kebang. Their traditional dance called Ponung is famous in the whole of Arunachal Pradesh. Dances are very popular among them. Adi villages are situated generally on the spurs of hills. Polyandy is unknown but polygyny is practised. Adi women are very good weavers and weave cloth with highly artistic designs.
The Adis have two main divisions, (The Bogums and Bomis) and under each there are a number of sub-tribes. the Minyonfs, Karkos, Shimongs, Bomdo, Janbos, Panggis, Palibos, Bogums, Padams, Milangs and so on from one group; while the Gallong and seven other groups constitute another group of Adis. The Adis by nature are democratic and have an unique sense of history.
They have well organised village council called 'Kebang'. Their traditional dance called 'Ponung' is famous in the whole of Arunachal Pradesh. Dances are very popular among them. Adi villages are situated generally on the spurs of hills. Polyandry is unknown but polygamy is practised. Adi women are very good weavers and weave cloth with highly artistic designs.
The Apatanis are settled agriculturists inhabiting the valley around Ziro-the headquarters of Lower Subansiri district. The older men-folk tie the hair in top-knots and tattoo the faces. Wearing of circular nose plugs and tattooing of faces is the most characteristic aspect of ornamentation of older Apatani women. However, new generation of Apatani men and women have stopped this practice of tying hair knot, nose plugs and face tattooing since early 1970s. The Apatani are good cultivators and practice both wet and terrace cultivation. Paddy cum fish culture is very popular among them. Unlike other tribes of Arunachal their economy is stable.
The Buguns or Khowas are gentle, hospitable and affectionate people. They are agriculturist and perform a number of rites and ceremonies for their welfare.
The Hrusso or Akas have a custom of painting their face with black marks. They figured frequently in old historical records. Their popular belief is that they were related with the Ahom Kings.They are keen traders and trade, mainly in cloth, blankets, swords etc. They have come to some extent under both Hindu and Buddhist influence.
The Singphos represent a section of the Kachin tribe of Burma. They live on the banks of Tengapani and Noa Dehang rivers. They are agriculturists and expert blacksmiths. The ladies are good weavers too. They follow Buddhism but at the same time believe in a host of spirit.
Khambas and Membas:
Khambas and Membas inhabiting northern part of West Siang are Buddhist by religion. Polyandry is prevalent among them. But it is more in vogue among the Membas. Agricultural activities are popular among them . Millet and Maize are their staple food . They grow cotton and barle also.
Mishmis form the bulk of the population of Lohit, Upper Dibang Valley and Lower Dibang Valley districts. There are also the Khamtis, the Singphos and a few Adi settlement. The Mishmis are divided into three main groups namely- Idus or Chulikatas, Digarus or Taroan and Mijus or Kaman. A section of the Idu Mishmi are also called Bebejia Mishmi . Their women are expert weavers and make excellent coats and blouses. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people. By nature they are traders. Since very early days the Mishmis had relations with the plains of Assam. The chief items of trade are deer –musk, wild medicinal plants, animal skins , Mishimi – tita etc.
The Monpas are simple, gentle and courteous people. They are friendly and possess a rich heritage of culture. They dress well in artistically designed clothes. Their communal life is rich and happy. They follow Buddhism and profess Mahayana Buddhism which centre round the Tawang Monastery. Each house has a small chapel attached to it.
The Nyishi are the largest groups of people inhabiting the major part of Lower Subansiri district. Their menfolk wear their hair long and tie it in a knot just above the forehead. They wear cane bands around the waist. They believe that after death the spirit of a dead travels to the 'village of the ancestors'. The Sulungs or Puroik are considered to be one of the oldest of the tribes in the area. Their dress and constumes are simple, and the religion is a form of the primitive ' spirit culture'.
The Nishing are the largest groups of people inhabiting the major part of Lower Subansiri district. Their manfolk wear their hair long and tie it in a knot just above the forhead. A Nishi can be easily distinguished by his dress peculiar to his tribe.
A neatly woven cane cap which they call Bopia on his head, a knot at the forhead called Padum with a cane basket looks like haversackcall Nara, a smoking pipe in his mouth and a long Dao (long bladed knife) he looks like a proud man, proud of his race and tradition.They wear cane bands around the waist.They believe that after death the spirit of a dead travels to the 'village of the ancestors'. The Nishings belong to the Indo-Mongoloid group of people and their language belongs to the Tibeto-Burman family.
The Nishi villages are rarely found in clusters. The tribe as a whole is fond of hunting and fishing in which they perhaps excel any other neighbouring tribes. Because of the lack of sufficient suitable land for wet rice cultivation, the Nishis are almost entierly dependent on slash and burn cultivation which is popularly called as Jhoom Cultivation. They cultivate dry rice in the slopes of the hills. Opo which is popularly called "Apong" is the only and popular drink amongst the Nishis.
Their life is full of rituals and festivals. Like menfolk, a Nishi lady usually carries a neatly woven cane basket for multipurpose use on her back called egin. The Nyukum festival which is celebrated every year with pomp and gaiety during the month of February is one of the important festivals of the Nishis.
The Sherdukpens are a small tribe. They are good agriculturist but their main interest is trade. Their religion is an interesting blend of Mahayana Buddhism and tribal magico-religious beliefs.
The Tagins are main inhabitant of Upper Sunansiri district. Their main occupation is agriculture. Polygamy is customary among them. Their dress is very simple consisting of only one piece of cloth.
The Khamtis are believed to have migrated from the Shan states of Burma . They are the only tribe in Arunachal who have a script of their own, They are Buddhist ( Hinayana cult) by religion, and bury the dead in a coffin. They include Khamyang tribe.
The Wanchos inhabit the western part of Tirap district, bordering Nagaland. They are a carefree, cheerful and hard-working people. Head hunting was customary with them in the old days. It was connected with many of the social activities of the tribe. Their society is divided into four classes the Wanghams ( chiefs ) , the Wangpana , the Wangaue and Wangaas . They have a strict sense of discipline and the law and order of the society is maintained by a village council. The entire tribe is divided into about forty confederacies of villages. Tattooing is a social custom among them . They believe in the existence of two powerful deities, Rang and Baurang. The women are good weavers but the art is restricted to the members of the chief’s families only. They are expert in wood carving also.
The Noctes inhabit the central part of Tirap to the east of the Wanchos. They are organized under powerful chief-those of Namsang and Borduria,They profess Vaishnavism and are disciple of the Bareghar Satra of Nazira, Assam, Naga Narottam who was a close friend of Shri Ram Dev Ata, the founder- satradhikar of the Brehar satra, , become his first disciple, Noctes are famous as salt producers which is their chief item of trade and barter. They are agriculturists. They also cultivate betel leaves on a commercial scale.
The Yobin, also called Lisus , are a small group of people inhabiting the remote easternmost corner of the Tirap district. They are simple and gentle people having their own culture , religion, faith and beliefs and dialect.
Lets visit into a tribe....
Paya Aro Pacho
ILP on Arrival
Sangken and Khamtis
My narrator Mobile