The starting post of this thread has some excellent tutorials you can go through them.
I think the sony camera would not be having full manual mode to help you understand the underlying concepts thus your first step should be to get hold of a camera that allows you to adjust Aperture and Shutter Speed independently.
For that there are some excellent discussions here in Photography->Equipment section regarding which camera to buy.
Apart from that the most important concept of photography is to learn composition because it is the composition around which every thing revolves. You don't need a DSLR to learn that your Sony one will be good enough.