The Weather and Meteorology thread


Cyclone Amphan makes landfall in India and Bangladesh | DW News
•May 20, 2020


DW News

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Cyclone Amphan has hit north-eastern India and Bangladesh, where millions are hunkering down in emergency shelters. The massive storm is packing dangerous hurricane-force winds - and authorities say it could trigger devastating floods along the low-lying coast. Authorities are also worried about the spread of the coronavirus in cyclone shelters, where they say social distancing is impossible. The storm first touched down in the Indian state of West Bengal. The coastline there and neighboring Bangladesh are bearing the brunt of the cyclone. With wind gusts of up to 190 kilometers per hour, the storm is the strongest to hit the area in over a decade. The flood-prone region is densely populated, with many vulnerable communities. Over two-and-a-half million people have been evacuated from low-lying areas and are being housed in shelters. The coronavirus pandemic has further complicated matters.


Kolkata Airport Submerged In Water After Cyclone Amphan
•May 21, 2020


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Operations at the Kolkata airport have been suspended after heavy rain and strong wind due to extremely severe cyclonic storm Amphan which made a landfall at Digha in West Bengal on Wednesday, leaving a trail of destruction. Follow this story and more:



Amphan Super Cyclone से कितनी तबाही हुई और Bay of Bengal में इतने तूफ़ान क्यों उठते हैं? (BBC Hindi)
•May 20, 2020

BBC News Hindi

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पूर्वी भारत और बांगालादेश से टकराए शक्तिशाली तूफ़ान अंफन के कारण अब तक कम से 16 लोगों की मौत हो चुकी है. बीते दो दशकों में आने वाला ये सबसे शक्तिशाली तूफ़ान है. बंगाल की खाड़ी से उठे इस तूफ़ान के कारण भारत के पश्चिम बंगाल, ओडिशा और पड़ोसी बांग्लादेश में तेज़ हवाएं चली हैं और भारी बारीश हो रही है. तूफ़ान के कारण कई जगहों पर सैंकड़ों पेड़ जड़ से उखड़ गए हैं, हज़ारों घर नष्ट हुए हैं और लाखों लोग इससे प्रभावित हैं. पश्चिम बगांल में अंफन की वजह से क़रीब 165 किलोमीटर प्रति घंटे की रफ़्तार से तेज़ हवाएं चलीं और पाँच मीटर तक ऊंची लहरें समुद्र तट से टकराईं. जो बंगाल की खाड़ी जनवरी के सर्द मौसम में शांत लहरों से भरी होती है वही बंगाल की खाड़ी मई जून की गर्म मौसम में उफान पर उठ जाती है. आवाज़ः नवीन नेगी


Amphan Cyclone Video: West Bengal, Kolkata में तूफान से भयंकर तबाही, Video Viral | Navbharat Times
•May 21, 2020


Navbharat Times नवभारत टाइम्स

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Amphan Cyclone Video: West Bengal, Kolkata में तूफान से भयंकर तबाही, Video Viral अम्फान ने पश्चिम बंगाल को हिलाकर रख दिया। 165 किलोमीटर प्रति घंटे की रफ्तार से हवाएं चलीं तो लोग दहल गए। कोलकाता एयरपोर्ट पर खड़े 40 टन (40 हजार किलो) के प्लेन भी चक्रवात अम्फान (Amphan Cyclone) में थरथराने लगे। देखते ही देखते पूरा एयरपोर्ट जनमग्न हो गया। बंगाल के कई लोगों का कहना है कि उन्होंने ऐसा तूफान पहले कभी नहीं देखा तो कुछ बुजुर्गों ने कहा कि तीस दशक पहले उन्होंने ऐसी तबाही देखी थी। चक्रवात अम्फान ओडिशा (Amphan in odisha) से होते हुए पश्चिम बंगाल (Amphan in west bengal) पहुंचा है। लगभग छह घंटे तक बंगाल में चक्रवात का तांडव चला। बंगाल में 12 लोगों की अब तक चक्रवात से मौत हुई है। एयरपोर्ट में कार्गो सेवाओं की जो उड़ाने संचालित हो रही थीं वे भी बंद कर दी गईं। अम्फान से जुड़े कई वीडियो सोशल मीडिया पर वायरल हो रहे हैं। देखिए ये वीडियो रिपोर्ट


What Explains the Rising Death Toll From Lightning Strikes in Bihar?
A combination of inept governance, lack of dissemination of information and irregular rainfall has lead to a dire situation in the state.

What Explains the Rising Death Toll From Lightning Strikes in Bihar?

A report released last year said that over 2.25 lakh incidents of lightning were reported in Bihar until September 2019. Photo: deutero/Flickr, CC BY 2.0

Umesh Kumar Ray


On May 5, lightning and heavy rainfall in different districts of Bihar resulted in the deaths of 20 people.
Nine people were previously killed in Saran while three persons had died in other districts of the state owing to lightning strikes on April 26. During the past three weeks, 40 people have been killed due to lightning in the state, while the figure for the same had reached 13 across various districts during the month of February. The victims were mostly farmers and farm labourers.
Natural calamities claim many lives in Bihar.
Last year, for instance, 142 people succumbed to a killer heatwave in June, while over a thousand others were hospitalised. The situation turned so critical that the Bihar government had to issue prohibitory orders across the state.
Incidents of lightning had also claimed several lives last year. A report released last year said that over 2.25 lakh incidents of lightning were reported in Bihar until September 2019, in which 170 people lost their lives. This year, however, lightning strikes are occurring earlier than usual.

Speaking to The Wire, Anand Shankar, a meteorologist at the Patna centre of IMD said, “After studying the current weather patterns, we have found that recent events are occurring due to the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) phenomenon. We have dispatched a study report on it to the met department.”
MJO is an oceanic and atmospheric phenomenon, which has a major impact on the weather patterns of tropical regions. The oscillation causes a kind of fluctuation in the atmosphere which propagates from 40 to 50-degree north latitude in the northern hemisphere and then oscillates towards India.
Describing the MJO phenomenon, Pradhan Parth Sarthi, professor at the Department for Environmental Sciences, Central University of South Bihar said, “Western disturbances arrive through the north-western region and pass over the forest of Assam. This is called the Madden-Julian Oscillation. Weather data of the last 100 years shows that Bihar experiences 4-5 western disturbances in April. But this year, more disturbances than the average have formed in April which is a new phenomenon for Bihar.”
He further added, “Besides, another new phenomenon observed this year is that temperatures are suddenly rising at different places in Bihar which leads to the formation of clouds followed by rainfall accompanied with thunderstorm. The May 7 downpour in Patna is its latest example. No other region experienced rain that particular day which implies that temperature was the highest in Patna. The heat led to the formation of clouds. Clouds need moisture for precipitation which was provided by the eastern winds coming from the Bay of Bengal.”

Experts claim that while western disturbances bring about rainfall, no severe thunderstorm accompanies it. Deadly lightning bolts strike owing to local weather activities because convective clouds form as a result of such activities, which in turn, cause lightning. “This year, as a result of increased western disturbances as well as local weather activities, thunder and lightning incidents are being witnessed since April,” said Sarthi.

Concerns of irregular rain during monsoon
A shift in weather conditions in April and May is likely to affect rainfall in June and July. If the rainfall is below average in these months, it will have a negative impact on the agricultural sector. Abdus Sattar, associate professor and agro-meteorologist at Dr Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University told The Wire, “We have clearly experienced a rise in the incidents of lightning bolts and hailstorms in April. There have more incidents of lightning strikes than usual this time. Western disturbances alone do not cause lightning strikes. They merely bring about rainfall.”
Sattar also added, “It has been witnessed that not only has there been an increase in western disturbances rising from the Mediterranean Sea, but in addition, easterlies, which carry more moisture, have been prevailing more than the westerlies. Moreover, an increase in localised activity has also impacted the weather patterns. As a result, extreme weather conditions are being experienced and they are going to prove destructive for agriculture in Bihar.”
“Harvesting of rabi crops is carried out from March till the beginning of May. Heavy rainfall, hailstorms and lightning strikes during this period are causing substantial damage to the crops. Several farmers have called me complaining about how their crop which was ready for harvest has been destroyed,” he said.
The data on rainfall also substantiates the claim that Bihar has received more than average rainfall during April this year. The average amount of precipitation during the month should be between 15 to 20 mm. However, according to data obtained from Dr Rajendra Prasad Agricultural University, the figure was 137 mm.
When it rains in April, the wind usually blows at a speed of 50 to 55 km per hour. But this year, the wind velocity was also higher owing to which litchi and mango farmers suffered a lot of damage. Sattar said, “This year, the wind speed was as high as 75 km per hour which is quite destructive for mango and litchi crop. However, the advantage of the present rainfall is that farmers will not need water to clear the paddy out. But it has its disadvantages too. Our analysis suggests that heavy rainfall in April-May causes irregular precipitation during the monsoon season. For instance, if it rains heavily on one day, it may not rain at all for a long period.”
Last year, very little precipitation was received until the last week of September when it suddenly rained 350 mm within a couple of days.

No warning regarding lightning activity
Bihar tops the list of states in terms of loss of lives and property owing to natural calamities. Keeping in mind the heavy losses incurred, the state government had come up with a Disaster Risk Reduction Roadmap in 2015 with the target of reducing loss of lives due to natural disasters in Bihar by 75% of the baseline level by 2030. But the number of casualties in the event of lightning strikes points to the fact that little or no work has been done in this regard.

According to sources in the state disaster management department, the Bihar government had decided to install lightning detecting sensor machines in the state after 171 people were killed in separate lightning strike incidents in 2017. The next year, officials from the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (Pune) arrived in Bihar to designate spots where the machines would be installed but for certain reasons the matter was put on hold. The IITM (Pune) officials claim that lightning detecting sensors are now installed at two places in Bihar’s Gaya and Madhubani districts.
IITM (Pune) scientist B. Gopalakrishnan told The Wire, “A single lightning sensor can detect lightning activity half an hour in advance in area covering 200 km around it.”
Besides Bihar, sensors have also been installed in Jharkhand’s Ranchi and Dhanbad, and at Gorakhpur in Uttar Pradesh. The sensors installed at these three places also cover some parts of Bihar. “Now, almost the whole of Bihar has come under the purview of the lightning detecting sensors. Warnings now can be issued in advance in case of a lightning event anywhere in Bihar,” said Gopalakrishnan.
Despite the availability of such technology in Bihar, there is no warning or advisory issued to the general public regarding lightning strikes. In Chhapra district’s Makhdoom Gunj area, nine people were killed in a single lightning event on April 26 while another 10 were injured. One of the injured, 63-year-old Tapeswar Rai, had gone to the field at around 6:30 in the morning when a sudden downpour started an hour later. He had taken shelter in a nearby hut along with several other people when the lightning bolt struck. “We had received no warning of the lightning strike. The weather was also calm, so we had no idea that there would rain or lightning. Otherwise, I would have stayed at home,” said Tapeswar Rai.
The incident has left such a deep impact on his mind that he is frightened every time if he hears thunder. “Since April 26, rain accompanied by thunder and lightning has struck our village thrice. Earlier lightning was rare in my village. Now we are witnessing frequent lightning.”
IITM (Pune) has developed a mobile app called Damini for the Bihar government’s use. “The app provides information about the locations of lightning strike 30-40 minutes in advance. It all depends on the Bihar government and how it disseminates the information to the people,” said B Gopalakrishnan.
Bihar disaster management department officials claim that the state government has also developed an app which is available for everyone for download. The app will forecast a lightning event within a 20 km area. But the general public is unaware of the app.
The Wire spoke to many people in various districts who had not been informed about the app.
Also read: Bihar Met Officials Issued Warnings About Heavy Rainfall, But No Action Was Taken
The convener of Lightning Resilient India Campaign, Col (retd) Sanjay Kumar Srivastava said that the state government was responsible for the casualties from the lightning strikes. Speaking to The Wire, he said, “The Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (Pune) has provided the Bihar government with the Damini app which offers a better forecast. In addition, there are many devices in the Patna Centre of the India Meteorological Department which provide prior information regarding lightning, but the government is not passing this information to the people.”
Srivastava said that 4,31,361 incidents of lightning have been recorded in Bihar between April 1, 2019 and March 31 this year.
“If people are issued notifications on time and they are issued an advisory in advance to stay at home in case of heavy rainfall and thunderstorms and to not take shelter under rain-capped trees if they go out, then the casualties can be reduced,” he said.
Bihar’s disaster management minister, Laxmeswar Roy could not be reached despite multiple attempts by The Wire to contact him. Responses have been sought from the secretary of state department for disaster management via a mail. The story will be updated as and when a response is received.

Translated from Hindi by Naushin Rehman.
Umesh Kumar Ray is an independent journalist.

What Explains the Rising Death Toll From Lightning Strikes in Bihar?


Meteorological Department Issued Red Aler For Many Parts Of North India Over Hot Wind
मौसम विभाग ने लू को लेकर उत्तर भारत के कई हिस्सों के लिए जारी किया ‘रेड अलर्ट’
न्यूज डेस्क, अमर उजाला, नई दिल्ली Updated Sun, 24 May 2020 05:55 PM IST


गर्मी से परेशान बच्चे (फाइल फोटो) - फोटो : अमर उजाला

उत्तर भारत के कई हिस्सों में तापमान 45 डिग्री सेल्सियस से ऊपर चले जाने के साथ ही भारत मौसम विज्ञान विभाग (आईएमडी) ने रविवार को दिल्ली, पंजाब, हरियाणा, चंडीगढ़ और राजस्थान के लिए अगले दो दिनों के लिए ‘रेड अलर्ट’ जारी किया है। मौसम विभाग के क्षेत्रीय मौसम विज्ञान केंद्र के प्रमुख कुलदीप श्रीवास्तव ने कहा कि विभाग ने पूर्वी उत्तर प्रदेश के लिए लू के संबंध में ऑरेंज चेतावनी भी जारी की है। उन्होंने आगाह किया कि अगले दो-तीन दिनों में कुछ हिस्सों में तापमान 47 डिग्री सेल्सियस तक पहुंच सकता है।

श्रीवास्तव ने कहा कि यह इस गर्मी के मौसम में पहली बार है जब लू को लेकर रेड अलर्ट जारी किया गया है। इस मौसम में तापमान उस तरह से नहीं बढ़ा जैसा कि यह आमतौर पर उत्तरी और मध्य भारत में बढ़ता है। ऐसा अप्रैल माह में काफी बारिश होने की वजह से हुआ जो मध्य मई तक जारी रही।
शनिवार को राजस्थान के पिलानी में 46.7 डिग्री सेल्सियस तापमान दर्ज किया गया। मौसम विभाग ने अपने नियमित बुलेटिन में कहा कि अगले पांच दिनों में पंजाब, हरियाणा, चंडीगढ़, दिल्ली, राजस्थान, उत्तर प्रदेश, मध्य प्रदेश, विदर्भ और तेलंगाना के कुछ हिस्सों में लू की स्थिति के साथ ही छिटपुट इलाकों में भीषण लू की स्थिति बनी रहेगी।
कब घोषित की जाती है लू की स्थिति?
इसने बताया कि छत्तीसगढ़, ओडिशा, गुजरात, मध्य महाराष्ट्र और विदर्भ, तटीय आंध्र प्रदेश, यानम, रायलसीमा और उत्तरी आंतरिक कर्नाटक के छिटपुट क्षेत्रों में भी अगले तीन-चार दिनों के दौरान भी लू चल सकती है। लू की स्थिति तब घोषित की जाती है जब अधिकतम तापमान कम से कम 40 डिग्री सेल्सियस हो और सामान्य तापमान में वृद्धि 4.5 डिग्री सेल्सियस से 6.4 डिग्री सेल्सियस तक हो।
मैदानी क्षेत्रों के लिए लू की स्थिति तब होती है जब अधिकतम तापमान 45 डिग्री हो और भीषण लू उस वक्त चलती है जब यह 47 डिग्री या उससे अधिक हो। श्रीवास्तव ने कहा कि रेड अलर्ट लोगों को आगाह करने के लिए जारी किया गया है कि वे दोपहर एक बजे से शाम पांच बजे तक घर से बाहर न निकलें, क्योंकि उस वक्त धूप की तपिश सबसे अधिक होती है।

मौसम विभाग के राष्ट्रीय मौसम पूर्वानुमान केंद्र के वैज्ञानिक नरेश कुमार ने कहा कि शुष्क उत्तर-पश्चिमी हवाओं और तमिलनाडु और छत्तीसगढ़ के बीच कम दबाव के क्षेत्र के कारण लू से भीषण लू चलने के लिए स्थिति अनुकूल है। कुमार ने कहा कि राहत केवल 28 मई के बाद ही मिल सकती है जब पश्चिमी विक्षोभ के कारण बारिश हो सकती है।

मौसम विभाग ने लू को लेकर उत्तर भारत के कई हिस्सों के लिए जारी किया ‘रेड अलर्ट’


‘No respite from scorching heat wave in Delhi over the weekend, temperature likely to soar to 46°C’: IMD
The Met department, in its city weather forecast bulletin, suggests that the temperature in Delhi is likely to rise as high as 46 degree Celsius on Sunday.
INDIA Updated: May 23, 2020 16:14 IST | Edited by Sparshita Saxena | Edited by Sparshita Saxena
Hindustan Times, New Delhi

The temperature may take a slight dip later next week with a possibility of rain and thunderstorm around Friday (May 29) in the national capital.

The temperature may take a slight dip later next week with a possibility of rain and thunderstorm around Friday (May 29) in the national capital.(REUTERS)

The national capital has been reeling under the effect of heat wave conditions this past week and no respite is likely in the days to come. According to the India Meteorological Department, mercury levels touched 45 degrees Celsius on Friday in parts of Delhi and the same is expected on Saturday as well.
The Met department, in its city weather forecast bulletin, suggests that the temperature in Delhi is likely to rise as high as 46 degree Celsius on Sunday and continue for the following two days along with heat wave conditions.
Kuldeep Srivastava, head of the regional forecasting centre of the IMD, said heat wave condition is likely to continue over Delhi-NCR over the weekend due to hot and dry northwesterly winds prevailing over northwest India.
The temperature may take a slight dip later next week with a possibility of rain and thunderstorm around Friday (May 29) in the national capital, the weather department predicts.

As per the IMD forecast, heat wave conditions are also likely in isolated areas over Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Vidarbha, Chhattisgarh, Coastal Andhra Pradesh and Yanam, Telangana and Rayalseema on Sunday.
In large areas, a heat wave is declared when the maximum temperature is 45 degrees Celsius for two consecutive. Severe heat wave condition is when the mercury touches the 47 degrees Celsius-mark for two consecutive days.
In small areas, like Delhi, a heat wave is declared when the temperature soars to 45 degrees Celsius even for a day, according to the IMD.

‘No respite from scorching heat wave in Delhi over the weekend, temperature likely to soar to 46°C’: IMD


IMD predicts heatwave, issues red alert for several parts of north India
The IMD has also issued an orange warning for heatwave for east Uttar Pradesh, said Kuldeep Srivastava, the head of IMD’s Regional Meteorological Centre.
INDIA Updated: May 24, 2020 17:30 IST
Press Trust of India| Posted by Susmita Pakrasi

Press Trust of India| Posted by Susmita Pakrasi
New Delhi
On Saturday, Pilani in Rajasthan recorded 46.7 degrees Celsius. (Photo by Rahul Raut/HT PHOTO)
On Saturday, Pilani in Rajasthan recorded 46.7 degrees Celsius. (Photo by Rahul Raut/HT PHOTO)

With temperatures surpassing the 45 degrees Celsius-mark across several parts in north India, the India Meteorological Department (IMD) on Sunday issued a “red” warning for Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh and Rajasthan for the next two days.
The IMD has also issued an orange warning for heatwave for east Uttar Pradesh, said Kuldeep Srivastava, the head of IMD’s Regional Meteorological Centre.
He cautioned that temperatures could soar up to 47 degrees Celsius in some parts over the next 2-3 days.
This is also for the first time this summer season that a red warning has been issued for heatwave, Srivastava said.

This season, the temperatures did not rise the way it usually does in north and central India because of significant rainfall activity during April that continued till mid-May.
On Saturday, Pilani in Rajasthan recorded 46.7 degrees Celsius.
“Heatwave conditions over some parts with severe heatwave over isolated pockets are very likely over Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Delhi, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Vidarbha and Telnagana during the next five days,” the IMD said in its daily bulletin.

It added that heatwave conditions in isolated pockets over Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Gujarat, central Maharashtra and Vidarbha, coastal Andhra Pradesh, Yanam, Rayalseema and north interior Karnataka are also likely during the next 3-4 days.
A heatwave is declared when the maximum temperature is at least 40 degrees Celsius and the departure from normal temperature is 4.5 degrees Celsius to 6.4 degrees Celsius.
For the plains, a heatwave is declared when the actual maximum temperature is 45 degrees Celsius and severe heatwave when it is 47 degrees Celsius or above.

The IMD issues colour-coded warnings depending on the intensity of any weather system in ascending order – green, yellow, orange and red.
Srivastava said the red warning has been issued to caution people not to step out during 1 pm to 5 pm, when the intensity of the heat is the most.
Naresh Kumar, a scientist with the National Weather Forecasting Centre of the IMD, said due to dry north-westerly winds and a trough between Chhattisgarh and Tamil Nadu, conditions are favourable for heatwave to severe heatwave.

Kumar said relief is only expected after May 28 as a western disturbance is likely to bring some rainfall.
A western disturbance is a cyclonic storm that originates in the Mediterranean and travels across Central Asia. When it comes in contact with the Himalayas, it brings rains to the hills and plains.

IMD predicts heatwave, issues red alert for several parts of north India


At 46.5°C, Nagpur is second-hottest location in India

MUMBAI Updated: May 24, 2020 00:59 IST

Badri Chatterjee

Badri Chatterjee

Nagpur was the hottest location in the state and the second-hottest in India on Saturday as heatwave conditions gripped the city and surrounding areas of the Vidarbha subdivision.
Nagpur’s maximum temperature on Saturday was 46.5 degrees Celsius, 3.7 degree Celsius above normal, which is the season’s highest maximum temperature so far, the weather bureau said. The second-highest maximum temperature in the state was recorded at Akola at 46 degrees Celsius.
According to the India Meteorological Department (IMD’s) bulletin issued at 9pm, Churu in west Rajasthan was the hottest at 46.6 degrees Celsius.
An orange alert (be prepared) for heatwave conditions has been issued for all districts in Vidarbha till May 27, while a yellow alert (be alert) has been issued for Marathwada for Sunday and Monday.
Severe heatwaves are likely to impact parts of northwest, central and peninsular India in the next four to five days, while many parts of northeast India will experience very heavy to extremely heavy rainfall during the same period, IMD said in a statement on Saturday
The heatwave is likely to affect relief and rehabilitation work related to the coronavirus disease (Covid-19) pandemic that is ongoing across many parts of the country.
However, with a lockdown still in effect across India, albeit with considerable relaxation of restrictions, there is not likely to be as much movement of people or vehicles as there might have been otherwise.
“Extremely hot conditions are expected to continue and for this reason we have escalated the level of alert for isolated areas in Vidarbha. Nagpur and Akola were the hottest in the state on Saturday, and could very well be the hottest over the next couple of days. During this period, hot and dry northwesterly winds come from Rajasthan and Gujarat over this region leading to this heat wave. This is the normal weather synoptic feature during this time of the year,” said ML Sahu, deputy director general of meteorology, IMD Nagpur.
Although Nagpur’s maximum temperature was the highest this season, it did not beat any records. Last year, the weather station recorded 47.5 degrees Celsius on May 28 while the all-time high was recorded on 47.9 degrees Celsius on May 23, 2013. Nagpur had recorded 47.8 degrees Celsius in 1954, 47.7 degrees Celsius in 2003 and 47.6 degrees Celsius in 2005, according to IMD’s historical data.
Other weather stations in the Vidarbha sub division that recorded high day temperatures included Chandrapur and Amravati at 45.6 degrees Celsius, Wardha 45.5 degrees Celsius, Gondia 45.4 degrees Celsius, and Yavatmal 45.2 degrees Celsius.
Sahu added that heat wave conditions were declared across Nagpur, Akola and Chandrapur on Friday itself but four other districts (with maximum temperatures above 45 degrees Celsius) were added on Saturday. “We declared heat wave conditions when actual maximum temperature remains 45 degrees Celsius or more irrespective of normal maximum temperature or if the maximum temperature is 4.6 degrees Celsius above normal,” he said.
An orange alert is issued when a heatwave is likely to persist for more than four days or a severe heatwave for more than two days. There is a high risk of heat-related illnesses such as a heat stroke for people exposed to the sun for prolonged hours or doing heavy work; children, elderly and people with chronic diseases are also vulnerable. IMD has suggested people avoid heat exposure and stay hydrated.

At 46.5°C, Nagpur is second-hottest location in India